BACKGROUND: Hypothermia with xenon gas has been used to reduce brain injury and disability rate after perinatal hypoxia-ischemia. We evaluated xenon gas therapy effects in an in vitro model with or without hypothermia on cultured human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3).
METHODS: Calu-3 monolayers were grown at an air-liquid interface and exposed to one of the following conditions: 1) 21% FiO2 at 37°C (control); 2) 45% FiO2 and 50% xenon at 37°C; 3) 21% FiO2 and 50% xenon at 32°C; 4) 45% FiO2 and 50% xenon at 32°C for 24 hours. Transepithelial resistance (TER) measurements were performed and apical surface fluids were collected and assayed for total protein, IL-6, and IL-8. Three monolayers were used for immunofluorescence localization of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA.
RESULTS: TER decreased at 24 hours in all treatment groups. Xenon with hyperoxia and hypothermia resulted in greatest decrease in TER compared with other groups. Immunofluorescence localization of ZO-1 (XY) showed reduced density of ZO-1 rings and incomplete ring-like staining in the 45% FiO2 – 50% xenon group at 32°C compared with other groups. Secretion of total protein was not different among groups. Secretion of IL-6 in 21% FiO2 with xenon group at 32°C was less than that of the control group. The secretion of IL-8 in 45% FiO2 with xenon at 32°C was greater than that of other groups.
CONCLUSION: Hyperoxia and hypothermia result in detrimental epithelial cell function and inflammation over 24-hour exposure. Xenon gas did not affect cell function or reduce inflammation.