OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate if endothelin 1 concentration at day 3 postnatal age could be used as a predictive marker for development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome.
METHODS: This prospective observational study was done on 69 preterm neonates with gestational ages between 28 and 34 weeks and diagnosed as having respiratory distress syndrome. Serum concentrations of endothelin 1 was measured for all patients at day 3 of life and they were divided into BPD and No-BPD groups according to whether they developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia or not.
RESULTS: A total of 17 infants were in the BPD group and 52 infants were in the No-BPD group. Serum endothelin 1 was significantly higher in the BPD group (435.39±172.88) compared with the No-BPD group (302.65±49.32) (p < 0.001). Serum endothelin 1 correlated significantly with days spent on mechanical ventilation (r = 0.379, p = 0.022) and days spent on CPAP (r = 0.391, p = 0.001). A serum endothelin 1 cut off value of 302.7 ng/L could predict preterm that will develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia with a sensitivity of 88.24%, and specificity of 61.54%.
CONCLUSION: Serum endothelin 1 is significantly increased at day 3 of life in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome who later develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). It seems to be a promising predictive marker for BPD but further studies are needed to find the appropriate time for its measurement.