Prophylactic regimens with fluconazole for candidiasis in neonates under 1.500g: A retrospective chart review of two cohorts

Silva-Rios, J. *, Camargos, P., Correa, L., Romanelli, R. | JNPM 2019;

BACKGROUND: The incidence rate of invasive candidiasis in newborns with birth weight below 1,500 g ranges from 2% to 8%, and fluconazole prophylaxis in neonatal units is recommended when the incidence of invasive candidiasis is higher than 5%. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of targeted prophylaxis and universal prophylaxis with fluconazole in the prevention of invasive candidiasis.
METHODS: This was a historical cohort comparing the targeted prophylaxis for newborns weighing less than 1,500 g and the universal prophylaxis for newborns weighing less than 1,000 g. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of invasive candidiasis was 5.25% and was reduced from 7.1% to 3.72% with universal prophylaxis (p = 0.04). In a multivariate analysis, the significant factors associated with the development of candidiasis were birth weight less than 1,000 g, prolonged hospitalization, previous surgery, prolonged use of mechanical ventilation, prior exposure to antimicrobial treatments, and use of targeted prophylaxis.
CONCLUSIONS: Universal prophylaxis had lower incidence of invasive candidiasis, and preventive measures considering the risk factors are mandatory to reduce the incidence of invasive candidiasis.

*Corresponding Author: 

Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli, Avenida Alfredo Balena, 190 – 5o andar – Centro de Pós-Graduação – Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais – 30130-100 - Belo Horizonte – Brazil. Tel.: +55 31 3409 9641; E-mail: