BACKGROUND: Perinatal asphyxia is a prominent cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Growth in head circumference is associated with improved neurodevelopment. Previous studies found a positive correlation between additional dietary supplementation and growth in head circumference among newborns with perinatal brain injury. This study aims to evaluate the association between anthropometric parameters and developmental outcomes in newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).
METHODS: Newborns at ≥36 weeks gestation with moderate to severe HIE were included in the study and growth parameters were monitored. Newborns with life-threatening anomalies were excluded. None of the study participants received therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Developmental Assessment Scale for Indian Infants (DASII) was used to evaluate neurodevelopmental outcomes at 1 year of age.
RESULTS: Of 76 study participants, 46 were followed for 12 months, 28 died, and 2 were lost to follow-up. HIE stage III, Apgar score <5 at 5 minutes of age, pH ≤ 7.1 on first blood gas and base deficit > – 16 was associated with death or disability at 1 year of age. All anthropometric parameters were significantly lower in presence of death or disability. pH ≤ 7.1 at birth (odds ratio: 11.835, 95% CI 2.273–61.629, p = 0.003) and weight gain at one year (odds ratio 1.001, 95% CI 1.000–1.002, p = 0.03) were significantly associated with death and disability.
CONCLUSION: pH > 7.1 at birth, and weight gain were associated with better neurodevelopmental outcomes at 1 year of age. Thus, in addition to TH, nutritional interventions may potentially improve outcomes among newborns with HIE.
Anthropometric measures as biomarkers of neurodevelopmental outcomes of newborns with moderate to severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy