Assessment of serum apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-1 and their ratio in healthy full term small for gestational age newborns

Programmed changes in growth restricted fetuses can increase the risk of adulthood diseases due to elevated serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein-B (Apo-B) concentrations. Increasing evidence demonstrated the role of apoB/apoA-I ratio as a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: To determine the concentration of cord blood lipoproteins and apolipoproteins as well as their correlation with birth weight.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a teaching institution in central India. Healthy full-term newborns, born out of normal vaginal deliveries, were recruited. Cases include term small for gestational age (SGA) babies while term appropriate for gestational age (AGA) babies were taken as controls. Their umbilical venous blood was collected and sent for biochemical analysis.
RESULTS: Out of 126 healthy newborns, 66 were cases and 60 were controls. Mean values of serum triglyceride (141.56±69.67 mg/dl vs. 113.67±33.38 mg/dl; p  < 0.006; 95% CI = 8.31 to 47.46) and serum apo-B/apo-A-1 ratio (0.67±0.28 vs. 0.55±0.20; p  < 0.007; 95% CI = 0.033 to 0.206) were significantly high and that of serum high density cholesterol (35.84±10.42 mg/dl vs. 40.73±11.70 mg/dl; p  < 0.014; 95% CI = –8.79 to –0.98) and Apo-A1 [87.59±12.44 mg/dl vs. 101.87±35.07 mg/dl; p = 0.002; 95% CI = –23.39 to –5.16) were significantly low in SGA newborns. Serum cholesterol, very low-density cholesterol rlow-density cholesterol rand Apo-B did not show any significant difference. Among SGA newborns significant negative correlation was seen between birth weight and apo-B/apo-A1 and serum triglyceride, while birth weight and serum apo-A1 level showed significant positive correlation. There was no statistically significant correlation between birth weight and other parameters.
CONCLUSION: These findings further support the association of prenatal factors with lipid profile rand can serve as starting point for studying lipid transport system changes during early life in Indian population. 

*Corresponding Author: 

Dr. Amit Agrawal, H. No –28, Ravidas Nagar, Near Nizamuddin Colony, Indrapuri, Bhopal, MP –462023, India. Tel.: +919826616019; E-mail: