Early extubation failure in very low birth weight infants: Clinical outcomes and predictive factors

K. Al-Hathlol*, N. Bin Saleem, M. Khawaji, S. Al Saif, Abdelhakim, I. , Al-Hathlol, B., Bazbouz, E., Al Anzi, Q., Al-Essa, A. | JNPM 2017;

OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical outcomes and the potential predictive factors of early extubation failure (EEF) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.
METHODS: A retrospective study of VLBW infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) over fifteen years. Neonates were intubated and mechanically ventilated on the first day of life, and early extubated within the first 3 days. EEF was defined as the need for re-intubation within 3 days of the first extubation. A composite outcome of mortality or any major morbidity (grade 3-4 intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia; stage 3-4 retinopathy of prematurity, moderate-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia or stage 2-3 necrotizing enterocolitis) was assessed.
RESULTS: In total, 394 infants were extubated early. Of those, 347 (88%) had early extubation success (EES), whereas 47 (12%) had EEF. Incidence of the composite outcome was significantly higher in the EEF group than the EES group, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Logistic regression indicated that birth weight < 1000 g (p < 0.01), administration of≥2 doses of surfactant (p < 0.01) and administration of≥2 inotropic agents (p < 0.01) were all significantly associated with EEF. The area under the curve (AUC) for the combination of these three factors (AUC = 0.77) indicated significantly higher predictive value (p < 0.01) for EEF in VLBW infants, compared with individual factors (AUC = 0.59 for≥2 inotropic agents, AUC = 0.64 for birth weight≤1000 g and AUC = 0.66 for≥2 doses of surfactant).
CONCLUSION: EEF is associated with poor clinical outcomes in VLBW infants. The combination of birth weight and the requirement for surfactants and inotropic agents can predict EEF.

*Corresponding Author: 

Khalid Al-Hathlol, MD, Department of Neonatal Intensive Care, College of Medicine, KSAU-HS, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, P. O. Box 22490, Riyadh 11426, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Fax: +966118011111/ Ext. 11135; E-mail: hathlolk@ngha.med.sa.