Abstract: National surveys were conducted in Japan to assess the current practices for circulatory management of extremely-low-birth-weight infants (ELBWIs) in acute phases. Approximately 80 and 100 institutions were surveyed in 2006 and 2011, respectively. Echocardiography was identified as an important diagnostic tool at 95% of the surveyed institutions. Furthermore, 74% of the institutions survey in 2011 used vasodilator agents. In 2011, the mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (mVcfc) and left ventricular end-systolic wall stress (ESWS) were used by 60% of the surveyed institutions to evaluate the relationship between afterload of the left ventricle and left ventricular contractility. Overall, the data collected from these national surveys clarified the current practices for circulatory management of ELBWIs in Japan, particularly the use of echocardiography and cardiovascular agents, including catecholamines and vasodilators.