OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between hemodynamic instability requiring inotropes and brain injury or death in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).
METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 221 neonates with HIE. Brain injury was defined using four HIE patterns based on MRI diffusion or T1 changes. The primary outcome was death or brain injury. Secondary outcomes were abnormal MRI, death, and abnormal EEG. Logistic regression was used to examine the risk of death or brain injury with the use of inotropes while adjusting for confounding factors.
RESULTS: Brain injury or death occurred more often in neonates who received inotropes (71.1%, 69/97) compared to those who did not (44.3%, 55/124). The use of inotropes was associated with increased risk of death or brain injury (OR 3.11; 95% CI 1.39–7.004) and abnormal MRI (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.22–6.34) after adjusting for confounding factors. Mortality was significantly higher in neonates exposed to inotropes (21.6%, 21/97) compared with those who did not receive inotropes (4%, 5/124), P < 0.001.
CONCLUSION: In infants with HIE, hemodynamic instability requiring inotropes in the first 72 hours of life was associated with increased risk of death or brain injury detected by MRI.
Hemodynamic instability associated with increased risk of death or brain injury in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy