Maternal first antenatal care visit biometric indices as potential predictors of umbilical cord morphometric parameters

Abstract: BACKGROUND: One key factor proven to increase quality of pregnancy outcome has been antenatal care (ANC) service. The perinatal triad of mother, placenta and fetus becomes functionally complete with a functional umbilical cord. The objective of the study was to establish mathematical models to predict the outcome of umbilical cord morphometric parameters using maternal first antenatal care visit biometric indices. METHOD: This analytical descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 pregnant women who attended antenatal care for the first time in their first trimester at the Victory Maternity Home and Clinic in the Kumasi Metropolis, between April 2016 and October 2019. Umbilical cord length, diameter, area, volume and weight were measured after delivery. Maternal first antenatal care visit blood pressure was taken and their non-fasting blood samples were collected and lipid profile done. RESULTS: Mean values for umbilical cord measurements were; cord length, 38.10±7.86 cm; diameter, 1.04±0.17 cm; area, 66.10±24.49 cm2 and volume was 34.02±11.16 cm3 respectively while mean cord weight was 65.01±21.35 g. The study found that a unit increase in total cholesterol led to an increase of 2.33 units in umbilical cord length, high-density lipoprotein also resulted in 0.06 units increase in cord diameter while low-density lipoprotein decreases cord length by 3.31 units. Also, a unit increase in maternal booking total cholesterol resulted in 2.33 units increase in umbilical cord length. CONCLUSION: Maternal first antenatal care visit total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein could influence the outcome of umbilical cord length, diameter and area.

*Corresponding Author: 

S. Bimpong, Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana. Tel.: +233 244988328; E-mail: