Abstract. Controversy regarding the optimal design for neonatal intensive care has existed for more than 20 years. Recent evidence confirms that in comparison with the traditional open-bay design, the single-room facility provides for improved control of excessive noise and light, improved staff and parental satisfaction with care and equal, or possibly reduced, cost of care. Single-room care was not associated with any increase in adverse outcomes. To optimize long term developmental outcomes, single-room care must be augmented with appropriate developmental therapy and programs to actively support parental involvement.