Positive pressure ventilation coaching during neonatal bag-mask ventilation: A simulation-based pilot study

Positive pressure ventilation (PPV) is the most important procedure during neonatal resuscitation. Providing effective PPV seems easy. However, performing the procedure correctly is extremely challenging. Airway obstruction and face mask large leaks are common. It is estimated that two-thirds of continued neonatal respiratory depression after the time of birth is caused by ineffective or improperly provided PPV. Finding methods to improve PPV performance are critically needed. Performance coaching is a simple and easy method of improving performing in procedural skills, and has been used previously to optimize compression technique. We performed the simulation-based pilot study to evaluate the impact of PPV coaching during neonatal bag-mask ventilation.
METHODS: Randomized cross-over study of nurses performing PPV on a SMART Newborn Resuscitation Training System with, and without, coaching. The PPV coach provided real-time feedback on chest rise, mask hold, and ventilation rate. The SMART system captured data on peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), tidal volume (Vt), mask leak, and ventilation rate. Data were analyzed by a blinded reviewer.
RESULTS: PPV coaching resulted in more appropriate PIPs (34 cmH2O, IQR 32-38 vs. 36 cmH2O, IQR 28–37; P < 0.001), lower Vt (4.7 ml/kg, IQR 4–8 vs. 5.5 ml/kg, IQR 4–13; P < 0.001), and less mask leak (39% leak, IQR 21–70 vs. 45%, IQR 22–98; P = 0.005). There was no difference in respiratory rate (P = 0.93).
CONCLUSIONS: Coaching improved PPV performance in this simulation-based pilot study. Further research on PPV coaching during neonatal resuscitation is warranted.

*Corresponding Author: 

Taylor Sawyer, DO, MEd, University of Washington School of Medicine, 1959 NE Pacific St, RR451 HSB, Box 356320, Seattle, WA 98195 6320, USA. Tel.: +1 206 543 3200; Fax: +1 206 543 8926; E-mail: tlsawyer@uw.edu.