Prediction of complex gastroschisis: The evolution of therapeutic techniques and their relation with fetal sonographic features

Mazzoni, G., Alberti, D., Torri, F., Motta, M., Platto, C., Franceschetti, L., Sartori, E., Signorelli, M. | JNPM 2022;

Abstract: BACKGROUND: To analyze prenatal ultrasound (US) markers to predict treatment and adverse neonatal outcome in fetal gastroschisis. METHODS: It was conducted a retrospective single-center study considering all pregnancies with isolated gastroschisis that were treated in our department between 2008 and 2020. 17 US markers were analyzed. Moreover, the association between prenatal ultrasound signs and neonatal outcomes was analyzed: need of bowel resection, techniques of reduction, type of closure, adverse neonatal outcomes, time to full enteral feeding, length of total parenteral nutrition and length of hospitalization. RESULTS: The analysis included 21 cases. We found significant associations between intestinal dilation (≥10 mm) appeared before 30 weeks of gestation and the need of bowel resection (p = 0.001), the length of total parenteral nutrition (p = 0,0013) and the length of hospitalization (p = 0,0017). Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for serial reduction (p = 0,035). There were no signs significantly associated with the type of closure. Hyperbilirubinemia is related with gestational age (GA) at the diagnosis of intra-abdominal bowel dilation (IABD) (p = 0.0376) and maximum IABD (p = 0.05). All newborns with sepsis had echogenic loops in uterus (p = 0.026). The relation between the GA at delivery and the GA at the extra-abdominal bowel dilation (EABD)≥10 mm was r = 0.70. CONCLUSION: We showed the significant role of the early presence of bowel dilation in predicting intestinal resection and adverse outcomes. All IUGR fetuses needed staged reduction through the silo-bag technique. The echogenic bowel was related to neonatal sepsis, while IABD was associated with hyperbilirubinemia.

*Corresponding Author: 

Giorgia Mazzoni, MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Spedali Civili, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy. Tel.: +39 3403426521; E-mail: