Prolonged non-invasive ventilation in extremely low birth weight preterm infants is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

To evaluate the association between the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) or nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) with the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).
METHODS: This is a single center retrospective cohort analysis of infants born at ≤1000 grams and ≤28 weeks gestation with respiratory distress treated with nCPAP or NIPPV. Groups were compared using Student’s t test or chi-square, and associations estimated by logistic regression.
RESULTS: Compared to nCPAP, infants who received NIPPV had a higher incidence of moderate to severe (M–S) BPD (84.2 vs 65.5%, p = 0.044) and death or severe BPD (75.0 vs 47.6%, p = 0.003). Each day on NIPPV was associated with an increased risk of M-S BPD (OR 1.08, p < 0.001) and an increased risk of death or severe BPD (OR 1.03, p = 0.006). After adjusting for days on oxygen, ventilator days, and days on all respiratory support, the odds of developing M-S BPD increased by 4.9% for each additional week on NIPPV (CI 2.1–7.7%, p = .0001).
CONCLUSION: In this cohort, use of NIPPV was associated with an increased risk for developing BPD when compared to infants receiving nCPAP, and each additional day on NIPPV carried significant increased risk for developing BPD.

*Corresponding Author: 

Shilpi Chabra, MD, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. E-mail: