BACKGROUND: Respiratory support in the form of mechanical ventilation is a crucial intervention in premature neonates, with respiratory problems. However, prolonged mechanical ventilation and endotracheal intubation may be associated with major adverse effects. The ideal time for extubation is based on clinical and laboratory parameters assessed at the time of planned extubation. However, such parameters are not very objective, which makes extubation in NICUs a trial-and-error approach.
OBJECTIVE: This work was done to assess the use of extubation bundle including modified spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) (10 minutes) to reduce the rate of reintubation, among preterm neonates≤30 weeks who were mechanically ventilated and extubated to non-invasive ventilation in the NICU, Women’s Wellness and Research Center (WWRC), Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), Doha, Qatar.
METHODS: A prospective study based on the collection of data regarding preterm neonates≤30 weeks gestation admitted to the NICU, Women’s Wellness and Research Center (WWRC), from January, 2015 to December, 2017, who were subjected to mechanical ventilation (MV) and extubation. When the clinical team decides a newborn is ready for extubation based on the extubation bundle, a modified SBT (10 min) is used.
RESULTS: This study included 465 premature babies from 24-≤30 weeks recruited in the NICU, Women’s Wellness and Research Center (WWRC). Extubation bundle with modified SBT was able to predict success of extubation with 95% sensitivity and 90.4% Positive Predictive Value (PPV) in the gestational age (GA) group 24 -≤27 weeks (245) and 95.3% sensitivity and 90% PPV in the GA group > 27 -≤30 weeks (220). As expected, successfully extubated babies had a higher GA and weighed more at extubation, compared to babies who required re-intubation.
CONCLUSION: We recommend the extubation bundle with modified SBT prior to elective extubation to be used in predicting successful extubation in premature babies. Guidelines for extubation among premature babies are needed in order to reduce unnecessary exposure to adverse effects of mechanical ventilation.