OBJECTIVE: While non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been associated with improved extubation rates, its impact on bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains unclear.
METHOD: In this retrospective, chart review study of infants admitted to the Cleveland Clinic, we aimed to compare the incidence of BPD among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants extubated to continuous positive pressure (CPAP) versus those extubated to NIV via RAM cannula or biphasic CPAP. Data collected included demographics, ventilatory modes, extubation data, and presence of complications. Infants extubated to either CPAP or NIV were compared using Wilcoxon rank- sum and Chi-square tests, and data were corrected using logistic regression models. Data are presented as medians.
RESULTS: A total of 120 infants were included, of whom 62% were extubated to NIV. The incidence of BPD was significantly lower in the CPAP group vs NIV (57% vs. 78%, p = 0.011). Infants in the CPAP group were heavier (birth weight (BWT) of 833 vs 724 grams, p = 0.005), more mature (gestation age (GA) 27 vs 25 weeks, p < 0.001) and were extubated significantly earlier (2 vs 8 days, p < 0.001). After adjusting for BWT and GA, NIV continued to be significantly associated with higher incidence of BPD among those extubated on the first day of life (odds ratio 5.9; 95% CI: 1.2–29.1, p = 0.029).
CONCLUSION: This study concludes that, as compared to CPAP, early use of NIV is associated with higher risk of BPD in ELBW infants. Further investigation using prospective studies is recommended to validate these findings.