OBJECTIVE: To study whether there is an association between nutritional intake during the first week of life and severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants.
METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, medical records of all ELBW infants admitted to our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (2010–2017) were reviewed for infants’ demographics, clinical characteristics, nutritional intake during their first week of life, and BPD risk factors.
RESULTS: During the study period 226 infants were identified of whom 67% (151/226) had moderate-severe BPD and the rest served as controls. Overall infants with moderate-severe BPD were younger, smaller, and spent more time on mechanical ventilation than their controls [(mean±standard deviation) 24.7±1.7 vs. 26.8±2.0 weeks gestational age (p < 0.001); 678±154 vs. 837±129 grams (p < 0.001); and 37.9±23.6 vs. 13.7±15.3 days (p < 0.001) respectively]. During the first week of life, the average caloric, carbohydrate, protein and lipid intakes were significantly lower, and the average fluid intake was significantly higher in the moderate-severe BPD than the control group. After adjustment for confounders, fluid intake, and days on mechanical ventilation were significantly associated with moderate-severe BPD with an odds ratio [OR (95% confidence interval)] of 1.03 (1.01–1.04), and 1.05 (1.03–1.07) respectively. Daily caloric intake was associated with an increased risk for moderate-severe BPD [OR: 0.94 (0.91–0.97)].
CONCLUSION: Low caloric intake, and high fluid intake during the first week of life are associated with the severity of BPD in ELBW infants.