OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of functional echocardiography for prediction of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure and development of adverse outcome in very low birth weight newborn.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Functional echocardiography was done in 143 neonates with birth weight less than 1250 g on day 3. Nine echocardiographic parameters were analyzed for babies with PDA for prediction of spontaneous closure and development of one or more adverse outcomes (bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis≥stage 2 and intraventricular hemorrhage > grade 2) during hospital stay.
RESULTS: The mean (±SD) birthweight and gestational age of the cohort were 1017 (±17) g and 30.8 (±2.7) weeks. PDA was found in 60 (41.9%) babies on day 3 among the recruited babies. Binary logistic regression model showed strong prediction ability of early (day 3) functional echocardiography markers in predicting future spontaneous closure of PDA and development of one or more adverse clinical outcome. In multivariate analysis, abnormal flow pattern (growing or pulsatile) was found to have increased risk for persistence of PDA (adjusted OR 22.9, CI 1.97-269) in comparison to PDA with closing/bidirectional pattern.
CONCLUSION: Early functional echocardiography, especially the flow pattern, is useful for prediction of PDA closure. Adverse clinical outcome prediction is possible with functional echocardiography markers when combined with gestational age and PDA closure status.