BACKGROUND: The reno-protective effect of therapeutic hypothermia in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is still debatable. We aimed to study the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on the development and progress of acute kidney injury (AKI) in neonates with HIE.
METHODS: Thirty full term infants with HIE were equally distributed between cooling group (selective head cooling) or non-cooling group (late presentation after 6 hours of birth). Serum creatinine, urine output (UOP), serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and serum cystatin C were measured at baseline, day 4 and day 10 of life.
RESULTS: The incidence of AKI as per Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria was comparable in cooling and non-cooling groups (40% versus 53%, respectively). Serum creatinine and UOP were significantly improved on day-4 and day-10 samples compared to base-line samples in both groups regardless of cooling. Therapeutic hypothermia was associated with a significant reduction in serum NGAL, but not cystatin C, level in day-4 and day-10 samples compared to the non-cooling group. Serum NGAL and cystatin C did not show a significant decline in day-4 and day-10 samples compared to baseline samples in both the cooled and non-cooled groups indicating an ongoing AKI.
CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic hypothermia was associated with less renal impairment when compared to infants with HIE who were not cooled. Continuing kidney injury may persist in asphyxiated newborns despite improvement in serum creatinine and UOP. Trial Registration Number:NCT02683915.