Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To investigate the variability in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) among Canadian neonatal centers, and secondary exploration of differences in approaches between Canadian and European practices. METHODS: We conducted a survey among Canadian tertiary neonatal centers on their local practices for managing very preterm infants with PHVD. The survey covered questions on the diagnostic criteria, timing and type of interventions and resources utilization (transfer to neurosurgical sites and neurodevelopmental follow-up). In a secondary exploration, Canadian responses were compared with responses to the same survey from European centers. RESULTS: 23/30 Canadian centers (77%) completed the survey. There was no consensus among Canadian centers on the criteria used for diagnosing PHVD or to initiate intervention. The therapeutic interventions also vary, both for temporizing procedures or permanent shunting. Compared to European practices, the Canadian approach relied less on the sole use of ultrasound criteria for diagnosing PHVD (43 vs 94%, p < 0.0001) or timing intervention (26 vs 63%, p = 0.007). Majority of European centers intervened early in the development of PHVD based on ultrasound parameters, whereas Canadian centers intervened based on clinical hydrocephalus, with fewer centers performing serial lumbar punctures prior to neurosurgical procedures (40 vs 81%, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Considerable variability exists in diagnosis and management of PHVD in preterm infants among Canadian tertiary centers and between Canadian and European practices. Given the potential implications of the inter-center practice variability on the short- and long-term outcomes of preterm infants with PHVD, efforts towards evidence-based Canada-wide practice standardization are underway.